WHAT IS HIV?
HIV is the Human Immunodeficiency Virus. It is a virus that gets into a person’s cells. HIV affects the immune system, specifically the T-Cells or CD4 cells which fight infection. Simply put, the virus destroys the T-cells so that the immune system of a person with untreated HIV infection is not able to fight off diseases and infections.
WHAT IS AIDS?
AIDS stands for Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome. AIDS is caused by HIV and is a late stage of infection. A person can live many years with the Human Immunodeficiency Virus in his or her system without experiencing any symptoms. When enough T-cells have been destroyed to severely compromise the body’s ability to fight infection and disease, a person’s diagnosis progresses to AIDS.
There is no cure for HIV and AIDS yet. However, treatment can control HIV and enable people to live a long and healthy life.
More than 1 million people in the U.S. are living with HIV. 1 in 7 of them don’t know it.
HOW HIV IS TRANSMITTED
HIV is transmitted through the following bodily fluids: Blood, Semen, Pre-seminal fluid (pre-cum), Breast milk, Vaginal fluids, Anal mucous
When you have sex with someone who is HIV-positive (infected with HIV) the virus can enter your system through small tears in your vagina, anus, penis or – rarely – your mouth. Open sores caused by sexually-transmitted diseases (STDs) such as herpes and syphilis can make it easier for HIV to enter your system.
HIV can be transmitted through contact with the blood, semen, genital fluids, or breast milk.
If you are an injection drug-user, HIV can be transmitted when your blood comes into contact with another person’s blood through sharing needles. HIV can pass from mother to child while a woman is pregnant or through breast milk. In rare cases, healthcare workers have come into contact with body fluids and become infected. Effective screening has made HIV infection via blood transfusion or organ donation extremely rare.
HIV is NOT transmitted through the following bodily fluids: Saliva, Vomit, Feces, Nasal fluid, Tears, Sweat, Urine
African Americans account for 45% of new U.S. cases, but only 12% of the population.
HOW TO PREVENT INFECTION
There is no cure or vaccine for HIV. However, HIV is treatable and preventable.
Here’s how you can minimize your risk for infection:
- Use condoms: If you are sexually active, always use a condom during vaginal and anal intercourse. Condoms are highly effective in preventing HIV transmission.
- Use clean needles: If you inject drugs, use new, sterile needles.
- Discuss sexual histories: Knowing the HIV status of your partner or partners will enable you to take steps to prevent transmission, like using condoms. About 25% of people in the U.S. who are infected don’t know it. Get tested together.
- Have sober sex: If you are drinking or taking drugs, you are less likely to practice safer sex and use condoms. If you feel like you may have a drug or alcohol, seek help.
- Get tested for other STDs: Having a sexually-transmitted disease (STD)—such as Chlamydia, gonorrhea or syphilis—can increase your risk of getting infected with HIV. Many STDs do not have obvious symptoms. Get tested for free through an AIDS Healthcare Foundation Wellness Center. For locations visit: www.freestdcheck.org. Or visit http://hivtest.cdc.gov/stdtesting.aspx to find a testing location in your area.
- Abstain or have fewer partners: Having fewer sexual partners will decrease your risk for contracting HIV or other STDs.
Having unprotected sex and sharing needles with a person infected with HIV are the most common ways HIV is spread.
Gay and bisexual men account for 82% of new HIV cases but only 4% of the U.S. male population.
Many people with HIV do not experience any systems until the late stages of the disease. In fact, the virus can live in your body for as many as 10 years – or more – without causing any obvious symptoms. Extreme fatigue, diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, fever and wasting syndrome can be some of the symptoms experienced at the late stages –when the disease has progressed to AIDS. These symptoms are most often caused by the opportunistic infections that a weakened immune system has been unable to fight off.
In the first 2 weeks to 30 days after infection—when higher levels of the virus are in a person’s system and he or she is most infectious (or, able to pass the virus on to others)—some may experience severe flu-like symptoms. It’s important to remember that not everyone who gets infected experiences these symptoms.
The symptoms may vary depending on the stage of HIV infection. Many don’t report feeling ill.
Last year, over 40,000 people were diagnosed with HIV infection in the United States.
IF YOU ARE HIV-POSITIVE
While HIV infection is a serious disease, it is important to remember that it is very treatable. Many people with HIV and AIDS live long, healthy, productive lives. HIV is no longer a “death sentence.” Since 1995, there have been medications known as anti-retroviral treatment that effectively combat the disease. In fact, the treatment is so effective that some who regularly and consistently take their medications do not even have a detectable level of virus in their system. If you are HIV-positive, there is hope and there is help. Visit www.hivcare.org for more information.
HIV medicines help stop HIV from making copies of itself by interfering with different steps of the HIV life cycle.